01 Jul

C++ vs Java: Which one is best to settle on for your future?

Introduction

c++ vs java which is better? let’s discuss,

The technology world is expanding tremendously with passing time, as they are concocting with trendier smartphones and tablets each other day and the competition has to grown intense in the market to remain at the most elevated position. That’s why there is a massive demand of programmers and web developers these days, for which one should have a knack for programming languages. Now there are almost 600 programming languages and the demand and popularity of these programming languages oscillate every year.

Java and C++

In this article, you will get information about the two most famous programming languages “Java” and “C++”  both of these languages powers most of the biggest enterprise platforms in the market. Both of these are” object-oriented programming “languages with outclass features, Java is the principal program in “ android applications” so’ basically a great choice for mobile developers. Whereas C++ is a low-level language that is used to power hardware and low-level programs for example network analysis tools and device drivers. Both of these languages have many similarities among them but also both languages are worlds apart.

Is Java better or C++?

 Both of these programming languages have an abundant and diverse range of uses but obviously there is a comparison between their usability and their design aims.  Yes, it is right that Java is a more easy and versatile language, it is adequate and effective for working on many projects then C++, C++ is an effectively difficult language and hard to learn. As C++ is a straightforward language abstract much less from the bare machine as compare to Java, one reason which makes C++ difficult to learn.

C++ is much faster then Java, for this it has many reasons. First is that when we compile  Java programs all the classes are first loaded and then compiled, contrary to that C++ is already compiled to binaries and will run in much less time than Java. The second reason is that Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is itself written in C language, so it is obvious that C or C++ programs will run faster than Java.

As you can see both languages are parallelly productive, their performance-optimizing is really complex. As most of the benchmarks are biased. It all depends is that what kind of work you want to develop from these both languages, both of the languages have strength over the other one.  Further in this article Java and C++ similarities and differences will be discussed in detail which will broaden your understanding of the functionality and comparison of both Java and C++ language.

C++ vs Java: Major similarities

Although there many differences between both of the languages but also have some considerable similarities which are as follow

1: Both languages supports Object-Oriented Programming

OOP is an interchangeable approach, which allows the data to only applied within the stipulated program area. It supports objects and classes.

2. Comments Syntax are similar

Both the single and multiple line comments are written as //… and /* …*/ respectively. For example

C++:

#include <iostream>  using namespace std;     int main()  { // main() is where program execution begins      int a = 5, b = 10, sum;      sum = a + b;         /* This will add the values of a and b  and will display the output stored in sum */        cout << sum;      return 0;  } 

Java:

public class GFG {         public static void main(String[] args)      { // main() is where program execution begins             int a = 5, b = 10, sum;          sum = a + b;             /* This will add the values of a and b  and will display the output stored in sum */            System.out.println(sum);      }  }  3. Execution of both java and C++ programs starts from the main function  Main function is the entry point of both languages , which means execution starts from 

main function. However the function declaration is different but the name is same. For example

C++:

#include& lt; iostream & gt;  using namespace std;     int main()  { // main() is where program execution begins      cout& lt;      <      ”      Hello World”      ;      return 0;  } 

Java:

public class GFG {      public static void main(String[] args)      {          // main() is where program execution begins          System.out.println(” Hello World “);      }  } 

4. Primitive data types are similar

Data types like conditional statements, conditional operators, classes, variable definitions, variable initializations, value assignments, etc are similar with very little difference. For example, the Boolean data type in Java is called boolean but it is called bool in C++.

5. Both have multi-threading support

Both languages allow executing multi-thread simultaneously to achieve multitasking.

Differences between Java and C++

Following are some major differences between both languages

1. Design Goals 

C++ is an extension of C programming language which was designed for systems and application programming for example infrastructure programming. To C, C++ added support to “object-oriented programming”, “template metaprogramming”, “ generic programming” and “C++ programming library” which includes algorithms, generic containers, and many more general-purpose facilities.

On contrary to that Java is a general-purpose, classed based programming language which is designed with having a goal to be easily used and approachable to a diverse range of audiences. It relies on Java Virtual Machine for its usability and also has a boundless library to provide full abstraction.

2. Semantics 

In C++ “pointers” can operate directly as memory address value but Java references do not allow direct access to a memory address to operate by pointers arithmetic. In C++ one can establish pointers to pointers, pointers to ints, and double, pointers to arbitrary memory location while Java only access objects, not any primitive references or arbitrary memory location.

3. Runtime

C++ is faster as compare to Java,  C++ is compiled directly to machine code which is then directly executed by the central processing unit whereas Java code is first converted into byte-code and is interpreted by Java Virtual Machine at the runtime. Actual Java implementations are done “just-in-time-compilation” to native machine code but if we compare both languages in terms of safety Java is more secure then C++.

Because in Java either low-level errors don’t occur or they are detected by Java Virtual Machine and report the application in the form of “exception”. On contrary to that C++ is a language with low-level features, for example, unchecked array access, typing punning or raw pointers which cannot be checked at the time of compilation causes low-level “buffer overflows”

4. Syntax

Java Syntax has “ context-free grammar” and can be easily parsed with the help of” LALR Prayer” but on the other hand “parsing” C++ is a tough task. Furthermore, C++  allows namespace level constants, variables, and functions but in Java, these such entities should belong to some given type and should be defined inside that type.

5. Performance

Besides running a compiled Java program, the computers which run Java applications, for the most part, should likewise run the Java Virtual Machine but C++ programs which are already compiled run without external applications. This is on the grounds the program’s statement of these two firmly related languages may compile by following a couple of machine guidelines with C++ while compiling into several byte codes involving several machine instructions every time when deciphered by Java Virtual Machine. For example 

Java/C++ statement C++ generated code (x86) Java generated byte code
vector[i]++; mov edx,[ebp+4h] mov eax,[ebp+1Ch] inc dword ptr [edx+eax*4]
aload_1 iload_2 dup2 iaload iconst_1 iadd iastore

Final Thoughts

Both Java and C++ can be used to create a wide variety of programs. However, the language you use is determined by what you want to develop. C++ is generally reserved for software that needs “hardware-level” manipulation. One difference between C++ and Java is that C++ is closest to machine language,  which makes it significantly more suitable for programming that necessities to run rapidly and requires the capacity to work legitimately with your PC’s memory, hard drive, CPU or different gadgets. C++ is additionally regular with gaming applications where speed is fundamental.

For most developers, the reason to choose one programming language over the other is its usage field. Both Java and C++ are general-purpose languages, but while the former is more commonly used for applications, C++ developers focus on system programming. Almost three decades after its creation, Java is still the basic language for embedded systems. You can discover them all over, from the little SIM cards in our cell phones to the advanced smart home systems.

Due to being powerful enough to handle significant amounts of data, it is a popular choice in sectors of e-commerce, finance, and science. strength of C++ lies in game development. It is used in the Unreal Engine, which holds the official title of the Most Successful Videogame Engine since 2014. Be that as it may, as we analyze Java versus C++, the last holds the benefit of not having a garbage collection feature. While it’s helpful for certain frameworks, it essentially denies you of direct memory control, which is significant for writing games.