Technical

Introduction to OS and Linux

Introduction to OS and Linux

What is an Operating System?

An operating system (OS) is a type of system software that controls how computer hardware and software resources are used and offer basic services to other software applications.

Examples: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Android, Unix, macOS etc.

What is LINUX?

The most popular and well-known open-source operating system is Linux. As an operating system, Linux is a piece of software that runs in the background of all other applications on a computer, taking requests from them and transmitting them to the hardware.

Some commands for Beginners

  • Clear the console

               clear

  • Changing Working Directory

            cd Desktop

             cd Home

  • List all files in a directory

                 ls

  • Copy all files of a directory within the current work directory

             cp dir/* .

  • Copy a directory within the current work directory

            cp -a tmp/dir1

  • To make an archive of existing folders or files

         tar cvf archive_name.tar          dirname/

         tar cvf alldocs.tar *.txt

  • Extract from an existing tar archive.

        tar xvf archive_name.tar

  • View an existing tar archive.

        tar tvf archive_name.tar

Basic command of UNIX/LINUX

Command and Description

 ls – Show files in the current position

 cd – Change directory

cp – Copy file or directory

mv– Move file or directory

rm – Remove file or directory

pwd – Show the current position

 mkdir – Create directory

rmdir – Remove directory

less, more, cat – Display file contents

man – Read the online manual page for a command

whatis – Give a brief description of a command

su – Switch user

passwdChange password

useradd – Create a new user account

userdel – Delete a user account

mount – Mount file system

 umount – Unmount file system

df – Show disk space usage

shutdown -Reboot or turn off machine

Compiling C/C++ program using g++ and gcc:

For C++:

Command: g++ source_files… -o output_file

For C:

Command: gcc source_files… -o output_file

Source files need not be cpp or c files. They can be preprocessed files, assembly files, or object files.

The whole compilation file works in the following way:

Cpp/c file(s)Preprocessed file(s)  Assembly File(s) Generation  Object file(s) Generation  Final Executable

Every c/cpp file has its own preprocessed file, assembly file, and object file.

1. For running only the preprocessor, we use

-E option.

2. For running the compilation process till assembly file generation, we use –S option.

3. For running the compilation process till object file creation, we use –c option.

4. If no option is specified, the whole compilation process till the generation of the executable will run.

A file generated using any option can be used to create the final executable. For example, let’s suppose that we have two source

files: math.cpp and main.cpp, and we create object files:

g++ main.cpp –c –o main.o

g++ math.cpp –c –o math.o

The object files created using above two commands can be used to generate the final executable.

g++ main.o math.o –o my_executable

The file named “my_executable” is the final exe file. There is a specific extension for executable files in Linux.

Conclusion

Linux operating system is very flexible. It can be used for desktop applications, embedded systems, and server applications too. In this article, I tried to explain how basic command of UNIX/LINUX basic command works and you will see the details of how to compile C/C++ programs using g++ and gcc, Trying to put more interesting content for you to stay updated 🙂

Top 7 python final year project ideas in 2020

TOP 7 PYTHON FINAL YEAR PROJECT IDEAS IN 2020

we are here to help you out. in this article, we will list down the top 10 python project ideas for beginners. so that you can elect easily for your final year project.

python is one of the main programming languages and most favored language. because a programmer can pick up Python very quickly. It’s also easy for beginners to use and learn.

Now we are heading towards the Top 10 python project ideas in the 2020 list.

note*(The projects are listed according to their popularity)

LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PYTHON

The library management system in python is an uncomplicated final year project. because it is easy to use and manageable. the system contains only the admin side. the system controls all the management like adding and managing categories, authors, books, etc. almost this system can manage everything. it’s a digital way of managing the whole library. Come and get Python Homework Help.

the system file has a python script(main.py, Borrow.py, Return.py, Dt.py, List.py) also a Text file(stock.txt). the project has a simple console-based.also the layout of the system is very easy.

Do you want to run this project?

you will get project files on the internet easily. after downloading the project, follow the step below. ( you must have python installed on your PC)

  • STEP 1: unzip the file
  • STEP2: similarly double click the main.py file and you are ready to go.

Got stuck or need to customize the library management system as your final year project, just click the below image and fill out the form. you will get a quick response from our team.

                                              LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PYTHON(query desk)

ATM SOFTWARE IN PYTHON

ATM software in python

ATM (automatic teller machine) software is a final year project developed in python language. the motto of the project is to show how the practical implementation of the Python programming in the banking sector.

how it’s helpful?

this software work as a controller during the transition process. With the help of this system, we can enhance the relationship between the ATM machine and the user.

also, It reduces the risk of losing money. The use of software helps in safe, reliable and secure banking.

Technical aspects of ATM software:

there are two types of modules in the ATM software project:

  • Admin module

  • user module

ADMIN MODULE refers to the bank that has installed the ATM software. USER MODULE while refers to the customer of bank with validate cards.

want to go deep down in the ADMIN module?

ADD NEW ATM CARD: this function is for generating a new user account card. below details required to fill the form are

  • Account name

  • Account number

  • Address

  • Phone number

  • two-factor verification methods

LOOK AT ATM MACHINE STATUS: this module is for viewing details of the ATM machine. admin can view the following data

  • ATM address

  • Last refill date

  • Next refill date

  • Minimum balance inquiry

  • Current balance inquiry

UPDATE ATM CARD: This module is responsible for re-validating the expired card, for update the card admin should enter the ATM card number.

This module also has six sub-module as listed below:(update ATM card)

  • Block ATM card

  • Activate ATM card

  • Reset PIN

  • Reset phone

  • View history

  • Update expiring date

To conclude, ATM software is the easy and safest way for the transition of money, because it makes banking transition secure. therefore the future of this final year project is bright.

MUSIC PLAYER IN PYTHON

Music player project in python is a desktop application, which is built by using Python Homework Help platform. this final year project is well-liked among youth. because it is a simple and basic level small project.

MUSIC PLAYER IN PYTHON

This final year project is for the following courses :

  • BE
  • BTech
  • MCA
  • BCA
  • Engineering students

Features of the project

it is used to play the all song kept in your system. list of some buttons to play the song in this system.

  1. PLAY
  2. NEXT
  3. STOP
  4. PAUSE
  5. UNPAUSE
  6. PREVIOUS
  7. EXIT

therefore this final year project is really a simple project but meaningful for your college purpose.

EMOJI PREDICTION IN PYTHON

Emoji prediction is a fun variant of sentiment analysis. when texting your friends, are you able to tell the mental state of your friends? are they happy? are they sad? Could you put an appropriate smiley on each text message you receive? If so, you probably understand their sentiment.

In this final year project, we build a classifier that learns to associate emojis with sentences. although the concept of the classifier is very simple. we collect a large number of sentence data from Twitter messages. then we focus on features from those sentences, which are :

Technical: quickstart

To use this project, it’s required to install python3, jupyter notebook, and some python libraries.

RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

looking for simple python project ideas? get started with the restaurant management system, project for free.

ABOUT PROJECT:

  • This final year project is developed in python language.
  • While using this system, you can easily calculate the total bill of the customer.
  • All you need to do is you have to fill up blank boxes and the system will display your total bill.
  • The design of this software is very simple so that the user won’t find it difficult to use and navigate.
  • It’s not time-consuming.

This system can be used in:

  • Restaurants
  • Cafe
  • Food trucks

modules of the restaurant management system

Now let us discuss the different types of modules we have designed to manage the RMS (restaurant management system). the modules are as follows:

  • Staff management
  • Login Admin
  • Stock Control
  • Transactions
  • Reservations
  • Cable & Menu Management

So you can choose a restaurant management system as your final year project because it is so simple and useful. also, the application of this project is very wide.

CURRENCY CONVERTER IN PYTHON

Python is a very versatile language because this language is being used in almost every mainstream technology. you can develop literally any application in it.

what is a currency converter?

currency converter is a software code that is designed to convert one currency into another in order to check its corresponding value. The code is generally a part of a website or it forms a mobile app and it is based on current market or bank exchange rates.

why do we need a currency converter?

  • Estimating the value of goods and services
  • Basic calculation
  • preparing financial plans and reports
  • To convert one currency into another currency

To use this you must have an API key. which you will get from here.

Therefore currency conversion might be your final year project. you can customize this software as per your requirements.

7|ONLINE VIDEO CHAT IN PYTHON

Online video chat is a desktop application which is developed in python platform. this final year project is very popular in students as their final year project. the module of this project is very simple and easy to handle.

The source code of this project is relatively short and easy to understand. You can access the complete source code of the Video Chat App from the download links in this post. Below, I’ve briefly introduced the project abstract with scopes, features, and source code files.

Features:

Listed below are the main features of the Video Chat application:

  • It facilitates the users for live video streaming so that real audio-video communication is established.
  • The application has four scripts: client script, server script, video feed script and video socket script.
  • The application can’t work offline. It is useless without a reliable internet connection.
  • The application can’t establish a connection itself but assists other media ineffective communication.
  • Video Chat Application utilizes web conferencing for video streaming.

Therefore video chat player in python might be your final year project. for any assistance and help, you can contact us at any time. just click the below image. Get Python Homework Help

Most popular programming languages in 2020

MOST POPULAR PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES IN 2020

If you are a beginner in the field of software development, the very first question comes to your mind is “Where to begin?” That’s undoubtedly true! There are hundreds to choose from, but how will you discover that yes, that’s the one? Which will be most suitable for you, your interests, and your career goals? One of the easiest ways to pick the best programming language to learn for 2020 is by listening to what the market says, where the tech trend is going. Programming Homework Help is the best for Students to complete assignments.x

Moving down you will find the most popular programming languages​

JavaScript

It is impossible to be in the software market without knowing or using javascript. because javascript is the most popular language among developers for the past 6 years.

according to Stack Overflow’s 2018 Developer Survey, around 65% of them have used this language in the past year. so you have to admit that javascript is a popular language. Get Java Homework Help for assignments.

Why javascript is so popular?

Here are some key advantages of javascript.
  • JavaScript is a client-side language.
  • this programming language is an easy language to learn.
  • JavaScript is comparatively fast for the end-user.
  • Extended functionality to web pages.
  • No compilation needed.
  • Easy to debug and test.
  • Platform independent.
  • Event-Based Programming language.

Interested in javascript history?

Javascript was created by Brendan Eich in 1995 during his time at Netscape Communications. this programming language was inspired by java, scheme, and self.

There was a time when Netscape made the best browser in the world and enjoyed market dominance.

The circumstances of the birth of the language, include:

  • the aforementioned marketing ploy
  • for initial development (time-compressed)

Summary

JavaScript has a rich and fascinating history. It continues to be one of the most hated languages on the planet, often for reasons that have long since faded into irrelevance.

JavaScript has become the standard programming language of the web.

Python

In most of the articles, python is not in the #2 position they put python below somewhere in their list. for me, python deserves #2 position in the most popular programming languages list.

What is Python?

Python is a popular programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum, and released in 1991. 

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

What can Python do?

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

Why Python?

  • Python works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc).
  • It has a simple syntax similar to the English language.
  • Python has a syntax that allows developers to write programs with fewer lines than some other programming languages.
  • It runs on an interpreter system, meaning that code can be executed as soon as it is written. This means that prototyping can be very quick.
  • Python can be treated in a procedural way, an object-orientated way, or a functional way

 

ALL ABOUT NETWORKS!

ALL ABOUT NETWORKS!

A wireless Ad-hoc network is an environment in which wireless nodes dynamically self organize and form a temporal network without using any pre-existing infrastructure.


The trend indicates the progress of the storage and computing capacity of network devices. This progress paves the way for exploring a new area of research i.e. Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing.

Pervasive computing is the growing trend towards embedding microprocessors an everyday object and then ensured communication among nodes using mobility and opportunistic contacts.

Pervasive computing can be realized through the convergence of wireless technology, advanced electronics, and the Internet. In order to realize the concepts of pervasive computing, one needs to be aware of an Ad-hoc network where contact between two nodes is not certain at any particular time.

The network in concern is Delay Tolerant Network (DTN), which is evolved from MANET with some interesting challenges such as, sparsity, intermittent connected mobile nodes, and no end-to-end connectivity for message transmission. The main principle for routing in DTN is the Store-Carry-Forward mechanism.

The Store-Carry-Forward mechanism introduces a delay while transmitting messages hence, routing/forwarding is an important issue for the progress and establishment of Ubiquitous/Pervasive Computing on ground realities.

In DTN when two devices come in contact with each other then this contact can be taken as an opportunity to serve each other through exchanging services and messages for forwarding them towards the destination.

This opportunity in message dissemination introduces a new paradigm of Delay Tolerant networking known as Opportunistic Networks.

In OppNets mobile devices transmit messages by exploiting direct contacts without the need for end-to-end infrastructure. The main reason for the delay in the realization of Ubiquitous/Pervasive Computing is the exponential growth of complexity at the network layer.

OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORKS ...

In Ad-hoc networks, routing protocols at the network layer are computational and storage-intensive and assume the end-to-end connectivity at all times. But, OppNet tries to simplify it by removing the assumption of physical end-to-end connectivity, OppNet devices are also equipped with different wireless technology interfaces so that, devices can opportunistically use the interfaces in proximity while forwarding the messages.The advantage of OppNet communication includes high capacity, low cost, localized communication, decentralized operations, and independence from any infrastructure. therefore the key challenges in OppNet are mobility, communication paradigm, data dissemination, incentives for node cooperation, and services. OppNet is human-centric because it follows the way in which humans come in contact with each other. Therefore OppNet protocols can be tightly coupled with social networks and their social relationships can be
exploited in order to build more efficient and trustworthy protocols.
There is no way of proactively determining paths from source to destination. Hence, in OppNet mobility is used for data dissemination. Here, mobile nodes carry the message until they contact a suitable message forwarder. In OppNet, routing and forwarding protocols are merged because the routes are actually formed while forwarding messages.

Hence, in OppNet mobility is used for data dissemination. Here, mobile nodes carry the message until they contact a suitable message forwarder. In OppNet, routing and forwarding protocols are merged because the routes are actually formed while forwarding messages.

2. Architecture of OppNets

Architecture of OppNets
In an opportunistic network, a network is usually separated into several network partitions knows as regions.

Conventional applications and protocols are not suitable for
this kind of network, where the end-to-end connection does not exist from the source to the destination.

The opportunistic network uses the store-carry-forward mechanism for interconnecting the devices in different regions. The intermediate nodes employ the store-carry-forward mechanism by overlaying a new protocol layer, called the bundle layer in the protocol stack, as shown in Figure1.

 

In an OppNets, each node comprises of bundle layer that can act as a host, a router, or a gateway. In case the node act as a router, the bundle layer can store, carry, and forward an entire bundle in the same region.

Whereas, the bundle layer of the gateway node is used to transfer messages across different regions. As a gateway node is responsible for storing
and forwarding between two or more regions and optionally be a host, so it must be equipped with persistent storage and custody facilities.

3. Characteristics and Requirements of OppNets

Characteristics and Requirements of OppNets
The Ad-hoc network is autonomous and infrastructure-less with multi-hop routing. Dynamic network topology and device heterogeneity focused researchers in designing energy and bandwidth-efficient scalable protocols. Due to the lack of centralized authority in infrastructure-less Ad-hoc networks, security and self-organization become the concerning issues.

These mentioned constraints are the key challenges while
designing network protocols for any layer of operation. Routing is the heart of effective and efficient communication among network devices. Hence, dynamic topology and heterogeneity of devices should be considered while designing routing strategies.

The ad – hoc network is vulnerable to several security threats like eavesdropping, deletion, modification, redirection, and fabrication of both control and data packets. There are various key-based cryptographic solutions for providing security solutions in terms of authentication, data integrity, and protection of message sequencing.

These securities solutions either detect the malicious nodes using intrusion detection scheme or use cryptographic techniques for providing integrity and authentication.

In an Ad – hoc network, a selfish node may degrade the performance through non-cooperation in data dissemination schemes. Selfish nodes may use the network resources for themselves but, do not cooperate with others in carrying out their work.

Node cooperation is an implicit challenge associated with an ad – hoc network. To ensure node cooperation, incentive schemes are necessary to tackle and persuade selfish nodes.

The OppNet is a subgroup of an ad-hoc network with some specific constraints and associated challenges. Hence, OppNet inherits all the challenges associated with an ad-hoc network.

In the case of OppNet, the unique communication paradigm and constraint increase the severity of associated challenges.

characteristics:

These are the following specific characteristics and associated challenges in OppNet are:

Sparse network

Sparse network: The sparsity in-network accounts for low inter-contact frequency and the average duration of the contact is also small. Hence, data dissemination is associated with delays and less reliability. The unpredictability and low end-to-end connectivity demand efficient forwarding techniques.

Store-carry-forward mechanism

Store-carry-forward mechanism: OppNets exploit mobility for data forwarding using the concept of store-carry-forward mechanism. In carrying messages, an additional storage cost is associated with routing.

This mechanism demands efficient buffer management strategies and the inclusion of a separate bundle layer in the protocol stack. Due to this mechanism node profiling is possible at the application layer hence, privacy and data integrity need to be ensured explicitly through reliable security measures.

Heterogeneity of network devices and interfaces

Heterogeneity of network devices and interfaces: OppNet plays an important role in the progress of pervasive computing. Pervasive computing requires the participation of each and every device and uses different wireless technology.
OppNet needs to ensure these requirements by designing highly
interoperable network protocols.

Human interactions

Human interactions: OppNet is human-centric as most of the participating nodes in it are humans. So there is a need to study the sociology and anthropology involved in the interactions of an individual.

Based on this study one can design the real human mobility model and social graphs. These social graphs map the underlying network graph, based on which data dissemination protocols could be designed and executed.

High computation power

High computation power: The advance in technology makes handheld devices more capable through high-end processors. On one side this is an added advantage but the security threats of viruses, worm, malware which were considered to be associated with PCs will now target the high computational power devices too.

It has been estimated that as the intelligence or processing
power of mobile devices increases, so does the amount of different malware. This malware can easily infect the OppNet.

Emergency applications

Emergency applications: Oppnets can be used in any kind of emergency situation such as an earthquake, hurricane, etc. Here, a seed Oppnet node is generally been deployed and then later on other potential helper nodes equipped
with more facilities can be added as per the requirement to grow into an expanded Oppnet.

Opportunistic computing

Opportunistic computing: Oppnets can be used to provide a platform for distributed computing to facilitate crisis management, intelligent transport system, and pervasive healthcare.

Recommender systems

Recommender systems: As, in Oppnets we can exploit the various context information about the nodes such as mobility patterns, contact history, workplace information, etc. Hence, the gained contextual information can be used to provide recommendations for various items in concern.

Mobile data offloading

Mobile data offloading: similarly, In mobile social networks, the Oppnet mechanism can be used for the purpose of data offloading. As the pervasive and ubiquitous use of mobile devices has immensely increased the data on a network. So, OppNet’s concept of store-carry-forward can help in offloading data from networks.

Info mobility Services

Info mobility Services: OppNets can also be exploited to provide intelligent vehicular systems through Internet-of-Things(IoT) for smart cities project. Internet-enabled devices can be a part of OppNet and mobile devices on the basis of proximity and need can exchange relevant information and take decisions.

4. Data Sets and OppNet Project Scenarios

Data Sets and OppNet Project Scenarios

Reality Data Mining: The experiment was conducted to explore the capabilities of smartphones to investigate human interactions beyond the traditional survey-based methodology. The subjects were 75 students and faculty in the MIT Media Laboratory, and 25 incoming students at the MIT business school.

SIGCOMM09: The SIGCOMM 2009 dataset [9] contains traces of Bluetooth device proximity, opportunistic message creation, and dissemination along with the social profiles of the participants. In this experiment, each device performed a periodic device discovery to trace out the nearby neighboring devices.

On the discovering of new contacts, the device formed an RFCOMM link on a preconfigured channel for data communications. Further, each device recorded the results of the periodic device discovery and all data communications.

In addition to this devices keep a record of the user’s social profile and its evolution and application-level messaging. The collected traces are time-stamped based on the device clock and reported as a relative time in second.

Haggle project

Haggle project: Haggle [] is a European Union-funded project designed to enable communication when network connectivity is intermittent. In particular, Haggle exploits opportunistic contacts between mobile users to deliver data to the destination.

This project includes 78 short radio ranges emotes with 20 stationary long-range radio emotes. These emote were distributed throughout the INFOCOM 2006 conference venue for four days.

The Bluetooth scanning granularity of a node is set once per 120 seconds. The pairwise contact frequency is 6878 per day, and the total number of contacts taking place is 23,478. The trace experiences an average contact duration of 216 seconds.

ZebraNet: [] It is an interdisciplinary ongoing project at Princeton University under the Mpala Research Centre deployed in the vast Savanna area of central Kenya. The study is carried out to know the patterns of migration and interspecies interactions for Zebras in Savanna. A mobile vehicle as a base station moves around periodically in the Savanna for collecting data from the encountered Zebras.

5. Opportunistic Routing and Classification

Opportunistic Routing and Classification
In OppNet, keeping the low intermittent contacts and sparsity into consideration routing and forwarding decisions are merged. The routing decision is reactive and taken on the fly by forwarding nodes.

The decision in selecting the best possible forwarder is the one that
anyhow helps in forwarding the messages to the destination. Traditional routing algorithms are not applicable in OppNet scenarios.
In traditional routing, either reactively or proactively decisions are taken based on the underlying network topology. But in the case of OppNet, the absence of knowledge about topological evolution hampers the routing decisions.

The fundamental problem associated with OppNet routing is the absence of end-to-end connectivity for the whole lifetime of a message. The routing performance improves with the assimilation of more knowledge about the expected topology of the network in routing protocols.

The routing protocols for OppNet are classified on the following grounds:-

1. Infrastructure less routing

In this routing mechanism, explicit infrastructure is not used to facilitate the routing process. In pervasive computing, it is the most viable and cost-efficient.

There is a further division in infrastructure-less routing based on the amount of explicit knowledge used in the routing procedure:-

Context oblivious routing

A. Context oblivious routing: In this routing mechanism the concept of diffusion is used in which, the message is disseminated in the whole network using the contact opportunities and in the end, it eventually reaches the destination.

In this approach, no explicit knowledge is used to facilitate the routing process. The dissemination based routing technique works well in a highly dynamic environment.


These protocols are resource hungry and mostly account for the congestion in the network. To limit the effect of congestion in the network there are some existing protocols, which suppress the count of messages in the network through intelligent heuristics. The epidemic, MV, Spray & Wait, and Network coding routing are some of the context oblivious routing protocols.

These protocols do not authenticate the participating nodes at the joining time in the network. It does not ensure the privacy of participating nodes and the confidentiality of disseminated messages in the network. Both users and data are vulnerable to security threats associated with malicious nodes attacks.

Context-based routing:

B. Context-based routing: In this routing mechanism, a context of a node is accumulated and maintained over a period of time. The sharing of this context information between the nodes helps the encountered nodes in designing the blueprint of the underlying network topology. This temporal topology is then used to make forwarding decisions.

The usefulness of a host, as the next hop in forwarding mechanism is depicted through the utility metric of that node. The context information usually comprises social, environmental, and user feedback about the nodes in concern. Context-based routing techniques reduce
the message duplication counts but, increases the corresponding delay in delivery.
Prophet, HiBops, and MobySpace are some of the context-based protocols. In this approach context information is shared between nodes and this sharing may reveal the identity of nodes in communication. The privacy of the user is at stake and the integrity of data and utility packet are compromised in this type of routing approach.

Content-based routing

C. Content-based routing: In a content-based approach, the destination node is not explicitly mentioned in transmission. In it, the destination node’s interest profile is shared with all the encountered nodes.

Based on the similarity between the message content and the interest profile of the encountering node, the forwarding decision is taken.
Here, the routing is based on publishing and subscribe mechanism in which the source node publishes its contents as the services in the network and the destination node subscribes these available data services according to the interest profile.

Content-based routing suffers from data integrity and confidentiality
problem. The availability of data services in publishing and subscribe mechanism is also the major security problem.
2.Infrastructure based routing
In this type of routing strategy, the explicit network infrastructure is used to facilitate the routing process. The infrastructure used in these protocols could be fixed or mobile and depending upon this, infrastructure routing is divided into two parts:-

Routing with fixed infrastructure

Routing with fixed infrastructure: Here, explicit base stations are deployed in the capacity of the gateways. These gateways act an interface to the different challenged networks and ensure the connectivity in a sparsely connected network. In order to achieve connectivity, protocols are designed to deliver messages up to base stations, and then it is the responsibility of the base station, which ensures the delivery of the message to another gateway or the destination node.

There are two variations of the proposed scheme on the basis of allowing node-to-node and node-to-base stations communicates in the OppNet.
Info-station Model and Shared Wireless Infestation Model (SWIM) are two fixed infrastructure protocols.

The performance of the routing protocol is based on the efficient functioning of base stations. Hence, the compromising situation of base stations puts the whole network performance at stake. These base stations are vulnerable to security threats and compromised base stations are a threat to the network itself. To severely deal with these threats an efficient and computational light Intrusion Detection Mechanism (IDM) needs to be designed.

Routing based on mobile infrastructure

Routing based on mobile infrastructure: These routing protocols use an explicit mobile data collector known as message ferries and data mules. The best possible mobility model is used for mobile carriers, in order to achieve the maximum coverage in minimum time units. These protocols are further fabricated into two
divisions based on the possibility of node-to-node and node-to-carrier
communication.
Data-Mule System and Message Ferrying are the two mobile infrastructure based protocols. Authentication through key management is hard to establish in this type of mobile infrastructure routing network. Distributed authentication schemes need to be established for the proper operations of the OppNet.

security in OppNet networks

Security in OppNet
In order to visualize the abstract concept of pervasive computing on-ground realities, security is the main challenge and it needs to be addressed with sincerity for instilling confidence in general users. Security at the root level in the communication paradigm instills the confidence in nodes for cooperation in the network. Hard cryptographic solutions are not sufficient in making the system threat proof.

The computational intensive algorithms of cryptographic techniques discourage the uses of these algorithms in the solutions of security to OppNet.
The unique characteristic of the ad-hoc network poses a number of non-trivial security challenges. The security solutions to ad-hoc networks encompass; prevention, detection, and reactions.

Proactive routing data integrity and authentication are to be maintained and reactive data forwarding are secured through real-time intrusion detection schemes. These algorithms detect a malicious node and then react, in order to nullify the behavior of attacking nodes.

6 . security Issues and Criteria in oppnet network

Security Issues and Criteria
A security mechanism is any process (or a device incorporating such a process) that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack. Examples of mechanisms are encryption algorithms, digital signatures, and authentication protocol.

Security solutions must be validated against security criteria. There are some widely used criteria to evaluate security aspects. Network nodes should be available to provide all the designated services assigned to them regardless of security attacks.

The solution should make sure that the identity of a message remains the same throughout the transmission.

The security issues for each network layer in an ad – hoc network are :

The identity of the message can be compromised through malicious and accidental altering. One has to make sure the confidentiality of the message through which information is only accessible to those for whom it is intended.

The message should be authentic enough, which assures that participants in communication are genuine but not impersonators. The solution should ensure that the sender and receiver of a message cannot deny that they have never sent or received a message.

Security criteria should include the specification of authority, privileges, and credentials assigned to network nodes.

Security’s criteria also include privacy-preserving in which the entity node is protected by not disclosing its privacy to any other node.

7. security Attacks

Security Attacks
Security attacks are classified as either passive attacks, which include the unauthorized reading of a message or file and traffic analysis or active attacks, such as modification of messages or files, and denial of service.

Passive Attacks

(a) Passive Attacks:

firstly
A passive attack does not disrupt the operation of the network. The attacker snoops the exchanged data and infers the desired information. The privacy of users and the confidentiality of data are at stake. The detection of a passive attack is very difficult.

On a preventive basis, data need to be encrypted before forwarding in the system. Snooping is unauthorized access to another person’s data. The software can also be used to remotely monitor and snoop the target devices.

Active Attacks

(b) Active Attacks:

secondly

Inactive attacks, attackers disrupt the normal functioning of the system through altering or destroying of data being exchanged in the network. These attacks can be classified into two categories based on the malicious node’s identities.

External attacks are carried out by the nodes external to the network and Internal attacks are carried out by the internal compromised nodes in the network. Internal attacks are difficult to detect and prevent compared to external attacks.

(i) Network layer attacks

Wormhole attack

In the wormhole attack, a malicious node receives packets at one location in the network and tunnels them to another location in the network. These packets are then resent into the network. This tunnel between compromised nodes is referred to as a wormhole. If the wormhole is used properly then an efficient routing is possible but, it puts the attacker in a commanding position compared to other nodes in the network.

Blackhole attack

In this attack, an attacker advertises itself as having the shortest path to the destination node. Once the malicious node has been able to insert itself between the communicating nodes, it is able to do anything with the packet passing through it. so It can perform a DoS attack and man in the middle attack

Blackhole attack

In this attack, a colluding node form routing loops, forwarding packets on non-optimal routes and selectively dropping packets.

Information disclosure
A compromised node may leak confidential and important information to
unauthorized node present in the network.

Resource consumption attack

In this attack, an attacker tries to consume or waste away the resources of other nodes present in the network.

Routing attacks

In this attack, routing operation is disrupted through the routing table overflow, routing table poisoning, packet replication, route cache poisoning, rushing attack.

(ii) Transport layer attacks
Session hijacking:

Session hijacking is a critical threat to the system. It gives an opportunity to the malicious node to behave as a legitimate user. Hence, ID Spoofing is the major threats in the transport layer.

(iii) Application layer attacks Repudiation attacks Repudiation refers to the denial or attempted denial by a node involved in a communication.

(iv) Multilayer attacks
Multilayer attacks are those that could occur at any layer of the network protocol stack. Denial of service and impersonation are some common multi-layer attacks.

Security issues in OppNet

OppNet is a part of the ad-hoc network and hence, all the possible security threats associated with ad-hoc networks are common with the security threats of OppNet.

The specific constraints of OppNet increase the severity of ad-hoc attacks on it. The routing and forwarding mechanisms are localized and merged in OppNet.

This simplification at the network layer also relaxes the node in tackling routing attacks but, on the other hand, context and content information need to be protected.
OppNet is human-centric and most of the forwarding mechanism exploits social metrics in taking routing decisions. similarly At application layer spoofing attack (node profiling) is possible due to the human involvement and store-carry-forward mechanism.

Due to the infrastructure-less networks, the authentication, and rating of the node, in terms of maliciousness is not possible at the time of joining the network (Bootstrapping problem)

Security issues in OppNet…

Hard cryptographic solutions are not sufficient to address security threats because; network devices are not capable enough to execute computational intensive algorithms. In OppNet, the aim is to develop and design privacy-preserving and secure opportunistic forwarding, while keeping the constraints of no end-to-end connectivity, delay tolerance, dynamic topology, loose trust, and no infrastructure in concern.

The main challenge in content and context forwarding is that, confidentiality and privacy conflicts with the very design concept of the forwarding mechanism of these protocols.

Hence to secure the confidentiality and privacy forwarding computations need to be done on the encrypted data.

security threats

The security threats challenge the progress of pervasive computing and the solutions to these threats are the major challenge before researchers. Researchers are addressing the security concerns of OppNet on a priority basis. Routing and node cooperation are the backbones of OppNet and hence, the associated threats with routing and node participation are on the priority.

In OppNet social metrics are exploited to build trust and reputation systems for authentication purposes. therefore This reputation model can be used to securely forwarding data and incentivizing selfish nodes for their cooperation. meanwhile, Some work has been done for securing the network from selfish and Sybill users. Anonymity for the privacy of the node is targeted at the network layer whereas, its severity is found at the application layer.

8. Problem Statement in networks

Problem Statement

“Designing Secure Data Forwarding Techniques for Delay-Tolerant Opportunistic Networks”

In order to realize the concept of pervasive communication, the security challenges of Opponents must be addressed on a priority basis. during Unique constraints of opponents make the security solutions of ad-hoc networks obsolete and direct us to work towards the goal of addressing these constraints with respect to security.

The primary goal of a security mechanism is to provide privacy, integrity, confidentiality, authenticity, and availability.
Meanwhile, None of the security-related work discussed in the previous section provides a solution to all these security criteria. The various protocols discussed address only some of these security criteria.

literature survey

In the entire literature survey, it has been observed that there is no security mechanism designed to date, which provides all the security measures under one scheme.
therefore Social trust-based protocols provide authenticity in the network and help in secure forwarding. So Cryptographic protocols only ensure message integrity and confidentiality.

The incentive-based schemes ensure the availability of the service through node cooperation. From all this, so it can be inferred that there are still a lot of security breaches in the available data forwarding techniques. The security challenges and limitations of the existing schemes motivate us to work towards addressing this issue and focusing on designing a new and better secure mechanism for data forwarding that ensures all the security measures under a single scheme.

We propose the following works in order to ensure secure data forwarding in delay tolerant opportunistic networks:-

  • Designing secure data forwarding protocols for opportunistic networks.
  • Addressing energy conservation issues in secure data forwarding.
  • Providing solutions to most of the security threats in opportunistic networks.
  • Mathematical analysis of social and network graphs for secure data forwarding.

9. Summary

Summary

In conclusion, or in short, we discussed the opportunistic network’s architecture and challenges. opportunistic routing and issues associated with it are also being covered.

Movie success rate prediction using data mining

Movie success rate prediction using data mining

Looking for a final year project using data mining? Then movie success rate prediction using data mining can be a good idea for your final year project.

This is the most interesting and discrete final year project idea using data mining. in this application, we have developed a mathematical prototype for predicting the movie success class, whether it’s going to be hit, superhit, or flop.

For doing this final year project, first of all, we have to evolve a methodology in which the admin has to collect past data of the following commodity, that influences the success of a movie.

  • Actor past data
  • Actress past data
  • Director past data
  • Music data that impacts the success

Now Administrator will add on film crew data also new movie data along with the release date. With the help of the above, all past data films will be labelled as superhit, hit, or flop.

with the concept of data mining, the user will be able to predict the success rate of upcoming movies. also, find out the marketing budget similarly, the user will able to choose the best releasing date. for better understanding, If the movie releases on weekend, a new movie will get higher weightage or if the movie releases on weekdays new movies will get low weightage. Due to this system, the user can easily decide whether to book tickets in advance or not.

Advantages of movie success rate prediction using data mining

  • This application helps to find out the review of the new movie.
  • Users can easily decide whether to book tickets in advance or not.
  • prediction of marketing budget

Disadvantages

If you are looking for final year project ideas we are here to help you out. The movie success prediction system is only one example we have even more ideas for you. just fill out our contact us form and handover your final year project to us. our team will be happy to serve you.

Electronic management system

ELECTRONIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Are you looking for an Electricity bill management system or electronic records management system project help for your final year project?

We are here to help you with this Contact us

An electronic document management system (EDMS) or electronic records management system is a framework of tools for managing the creation. use, and storage of documents in multiple formats that are created throughout an organization. Typically, document management refers to a centralized software system that captures and manages both digital files and images of scanned paper documents.

Electronic document management systems share many similar features with enterprise content management (ECM) systems; however, document management software systems. focus on the use and optimization of active documents and structured data. such as Word documents, PDF files, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint, emails and other defined formats. whereas ECM systems also manage unstructured content and rich media formats. However, electronic document management is much more than simply scanning and saving. it is a comprehensive system that enables knowledge workers to efficiently organize and distribute documents across the organization for, better-integrated use within daily operations.

Electronic document management systems contain tools for:

  • Creating digital files and converting paper documents into digital assets.
  • Easily sharing digital documents with the right knowledge workers.
  • Centrally organizing documents in standardized file structures and formats.
  • Storing and accessing information for more efficient use.
  • Securing documents according to standardized compliance rules.

By centralizing information use and access, document management is the hub on which broader information management strategies. like ECM, records management and business process automation can be connected and deployed.

The project Electricity bill payment or electronic records management system is all about managing the Electricity bill system.
where users pay an electrical bill via Mastercard or open-end credit.
This system is automated conventional for bill pay. the system would be having 3 logins for patrons, admin, and employee. Admin will manage all the registered customer’s login detail and their bill payment. it (admin) can view all details, they need the authority to feature and take away customers and employees from the account.
therefore admin can add an employee to the account and provides some authority to them. like an employee can see details of consumers.
The employee is going to be divided into parts per their description.
The customers are going to be divided by ZipCode. If just in case Customers are unable to pay the bill by the maturity then they’re going to charge the penalty for every subsequent day.

Detailed Description of Module of the project ( Electricity bill management system)

Welcome page: 
There will be a welcome page for the Electricity bill management system. And that will be for 3 seconds.
Login page for customers: 

After registration, customers can view their bill details, due date, and penalty if any. The user will get only those privileges that are given to the purchasers that one has registered. customers are ready to make a payment, they will save their MasterCard and open-end credit details for future use. they will check what percentage points they use for the present month. or back month for the bill they will see the history of payment also.

Login page for Employee: 
If the user is an employee for the Electricity bill management system. or electronic records management system. then he can make changes to the data like adding units in the bill, used by a customer. They will work as per their job description.
Login page for Admin: 
This module can only have one account and this account has all the privileges which an employee account does not have. They verified all details only if they did not authorize to the addition of an employee. in the database then no one can able to log in. 

Queries form:

In this module, the customer can ask any query and the query with details. will be sent to the person who is managing queries and then the employee or admin can give the answer for the query.
Admin can also see any query made by the customer and can also reply to the customer according to the query.
Help page:  
Under this module, there will be a help page for customers. where customers can choose the question as per their needs and the question. and their answer will be saved into the database and they will get an instant answer.
Check spend unit :
In this, any particular customer can be found using a unique meter id ( which is saved in the database by Admin). and the remaining balance of a customer can be checked.

Penalty

By chance, if the customer is unable to pay the electric bill by the due date. then there would be a penalty charge based on the per-day rate multiplied by the number of days. The system must update this status from time to time.
Once the penalty would be paid system will get updated within a few minutes.

What is the main Motto behind the Electricity bill management system project?

  • The system saves paper the need of maintaining paper electricity bills. as all the electricity bill records are managed electronically Big no for Paper.
  • Admin doesn’t have to keep a manual track of the customers and employees. The system automatically calculates the penalty. Big time saver
  • customers don’t have to visit the office for bill payments. Hassle-free
  • There is no need for a delivery boy for delivering bills to the customer’s place.Money Saver

Library management system

LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Are you looking for Library management system for your final year project? Library Management System is a software built to handle the primary housekeeping functions of a library. Libraries rely on library management systems to manage asset collections as well as relationships with their members. In  this article Library management systems help libraries keep track of the books and their checkouts, as well as members’ subscriptions and profiles. This systems also involve maintaining the database for entering new books and recording books that have been borrowed with their respective due dates.

System Requirements

💡 Always clarify requirements at the beginning of the interview. Be sure to ask questions to find the exact scope of the system that the interviewer has in mind.

We will focus on the following set of requirements while designing the Library Management System:

  1. Any library member should be able to search books by their title, author, subject category as well by the publication date.
  2. Each book will have a unique identification number and other details including a rack number which will help to physically locate the book.
  3. There could be more than one copy of a book, and library members should be able to check-out and reserve any copy. We will call each copy of a book, a book item.
  4. System should be able to retrieve information like who took a particular book or what are the books checked-out by a specific library member.
  5. There should be a maximum limit (5) on how many books a member can check-out.
  6. you can keep maximum limit (10) on how many days a member can keep a book.
  7. The system should be able to collect fines for books returned after the due date.
  8. Members should be able to reserve books that are not currently available.
  9. This system should be able to send notifications whenever the reserved books become available, as well as when the book is not returned within the due date.
  10. Each book and member card will have a unique barcode. The system will be able to read barcodes from books and members’ library cards.

What is Library management System all About :

Organizing, and managing the library and library-related functions. It also maintains the database-related book and students and staff. It deletes and adds the functions into the database according to books that have been retrieved or issued, with their respective dates. The main aim of this project is to provide an easy-to-handle and automated library management system. 

 The administrator can easily update, delete and insert data in the database with this project,  following are some of the features provided by this project:
 
  1. The welcome page will be there
  2. You can issue books by the Online Portal
  3. You will get the option to search for a book online.
  4. Login portal for a student.
  5.  portal for staff members
  6. Login portal for administrator
  7. Colum  to request a new book
The main page for the student has different buttons to navigate to pages containing the date of issue, date of return, fine charges etc.
Columns for teachers to get the book issued if needed.
Requests column for teachers to ask for the introduction of new or essential books in the library.
Maintaining records of the librarian and other library staff.
There would be a feedback page students and staff both can give feedback there.

Software requirement for library management system

Software requirement for library management system:

  1. Java language
  2. Net beans IDE 7.0.1 or eclipse neon
  3. MySQL

Functional Requirement of library management system

On the other side, there are those that deal with all types of technical functioning of the system.
Library project meet each functional requirement.

Welcome page:

It will show the First welcome page for your Library management page

Login : 

After the welcome page, there will be a login page, User will get to know whether they have access to log in or not, at the time of login, and they will get the option to reset their password as well. If for any user these fields don’t match, then the user will not be allowed to use the system. For this, the user id is stored at the time of registration. After this authorization takes place, to know what all are the levels a particular user can access the Library management system.

User Sign-up Process: 

If someone wanted to access Library management system. If a User creates a new account. This system must verify all the user’s information, if the information will be invalid or incorrect then the entered information will be removed from the database.

Search operation:

Searching features would be for all users, they can search books based on unique identities, the name of the book, author’s name. There must be some filters available to search with keywords.
 

Issue and Return book:

This is for issuing and returning books and also maintaining the issue and return status in the database accordingly. Number updater for book features will work fine. The Library management system must be performing well with storing the issue data in the database.

Adding New books to the library:

In this feature  we can add new books to the library by the Administrator only. The system must enter and maintain the number of copies of each individual book in order.  And the administrator should allocate a unique key to each individual book.

Penalty charge:

By chance, if the user is unable to return the book by the return date then there would be a penalty charge based on the per day rate multiplied by the number of days. The system must update this status from time to time.
Once the penalty would be paid system will get updated within a few minutes.
Add on features we can put on the Online Library Management system.
Best add one features you can add in Library management system you can add notice board where any announcement related to college school and university or any education organization can put to show it to their users and they can take benefits, and you can give the option to staff and teacher to upload any lecture PDF or slide so, Student can download it.
Notice Board system is the best Add-on option to the Library management system

What is the Motto Behind Online Library Management System :

Therefore in today’s time every college school, university, and any education organization need a library and in the era of the internet, an Online Management system is the most wanted project.

Python Homework Help for Data Science Students

PYTHON HOMEWORK HELP FOR DATA SCIENCE STUDENTS

As the programming language of choice for beginners and professionals alike, Python has become one of the most crucial programming languages in the world today. It has become indispensable to data science and machine learning, but it can also help even casual computer users program more efficiently and learn new coding skills quickly and easily. What’s more, Python Homework Help for students has become an essential programming language for beginners in the field of data science and machine learning.

What is Python?

Python is a programming language used to build software-programs. It is considered as an object-oriented language that uses dynamic semantics. Python is popular in data science and artificial intelligence, which involves in processes like pattern recognition and image processing. Read on to find about more about Python Homework Help for your academic success! We are here to help you out with your python homework! So, do not forget our Python programming homework services at all. Make a note of us now!

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If you are a student and need Python Assignment help then place an order with us. Our experts will provide you with one of our best results in your python assignment. With us, you can get expert python homework help from expert professionals.

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Most of the students struggle in implementing Python Assignment help to their respective class projects. The concept of Python is quite easy but while it comes to implementation, they face many problems. This creates trouble in completing your course project within given time frame. If you are one of them then hire our experts with whom you can share your concern and they will do everything in their capacity to assist you. With our top-notch python Homework help service, a programming student gets assistance from any part of the world.

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Python is a high-level programming language created by Guido van Rossum. Python is one of the top most important languages in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data science. Python is easy to learn and easy to use because it was built to have highly readable code, even when it’s read many years after its writing. Because of its widespread adoption and ease of use, Python Homework Help for students has been adopted in schools across the globe as an introductory language in programming.

Installing python

Python is available in the default repository of all Linux operating systems, so you don’t need to install it. However, if you want to update your old version or compile it from scratch on your PC, then there are many ways through which you can easily do that. This tutorial will show how to get started with Python Programming on Windows/Mac (Linux) computers. We have also written a guide on installing Python 3 on Ubuntu.

Learn basic concepts with examples

To learn basic concepts in Python, you must download and install it first. When you create a new file in Python, it gives you several pre-made functions with which to perform actions, including print() and math(). Downloading Python is essential to learning how to program with examples. With Programming Homework Help, experts at home can help you get over challenges efficiently.

Importance of the IDE for beginners

When you are learning any programming language, it is essential to find a good IDE (Integrated Development Environment). A good IDE will not only save you time but also help in finding errors quickly. Nowadays, Python is most popularly used to work on data science. Therefore, as a data science student, if you want to become an expert programmer than a good IDE is required for you. To give an idea about some of these IDEs let’s check out their features.

How to install an IDE?

Python is programmed using a tool called IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Learning how to install an IDE like IDLE is essential as most of your work in Python will be done inside it. If you’re completely new to Python, follow these steps

Using IDLE (Python GUI)

Python ships with a great GUI tool known as IDLE. This tool makes it much easier to create Python code and run it in an environment similar to Notepad. It’s not 100% necessary to use IDLE, but you’ll probably find it helpful. With IDLE, you can click on your code and press F5 to run it. If you aren’t using IDLE, be sure to save your file before running it!

Create and run your first python program!

Like any other programming language, Python is only effective when it’s used. In fact, practice is what makes perfect! That being said, there are some practical uses of Python that are great to master early on. So if you’re a data science student in need of  Python homework help with python code snippets or Data Analytics Homework Help with code, start practising by creating and running your first Python Homework Help for students program.

Python

In most of the articles, python is not in the #2 position they put python below somewhere in their list. for me, python deserves #2 position in the most popular programming languages list.

What is Python?

Python is a popular programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum, and released in 1991. 

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

What can Python do?

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

Why Python?

  • Python works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc).
  • It has a simple syntax similar to the English language.
  • Python has a syntax that allows developers to write programs with fewer lines than some other programming languages.
  • It runs on an interpreter system, meaning that code can be executed as soon as it is written. This means that prototyping can be very quick.
  • Python can be treated in a procedural way, an object-orientated way, or a functional way

 

Programming Homework Help: How to Write Clean Codes

PROGRAMMING HOMEWORK HELP: HOW TO WRITE CLEAN CODES

It’s hard to believe that anyone would have a problem completing the programming homework, but it does happen, and more often than not. If you’re struggling with your assignments or even just getting them done on time, Programming Homework Help can help you learn how to write clean codes that are simple to read and easy to execute. We’ll teach you how to follow the standards of writing so that your code will be much easier to understand and modify by others, as well as how to keep track of your logic flow so that your programs will be easy to debug when there are problems.

What Are Code Smells?

Code smells are certain structures in your code that indicate a deeper problem with your codebase. There are two types of code smells, structural and semantic. Structural smells point to larger issues, whereas semantic ones can be fixed quickly but still make it difficult for developers to work on your application. In both cases, they make adding new features or modifying existing ones harder than necessary.

Code Smells – Examples

If you are an experienced programmer, you might have noticed that some codes tend to be bloated and full of repetition. One of these is called code smell, which can be quite embarrassing if not fixed. For example, if a variable is used in multiple places within a code block but never changed throughout that same block, then it can indicate that either that variable should no longer exist or it needs a different scope. This can make your code easier to read, understand, and maintain over time. Here’s another one: If you see long methods with many lines of repetitive logic inside them, then they may contain too much information for their own good. You may want to split those methods into smaller ones with more specific functions so that they are easier to read and maintain over time. We provide the time to time Programming Homework Help for Students.

Consequences of Unmaintainable Code

If you are doing Java homework help for a long time, there is a very high probability that your codebase would become unmaintainable. Any newbie working on your project will have a very difficult time understanding your codebase, which would lead to bug-ridden code. Once your code gets bugs, it becomes extremely hard to change or extend. You may need to add new features, but because of the complexity of your existing code base and the presence of bugs in them, adding new features would be even more challenging.

In such cases, if you need any Java homework help from experts at Programming Homework Help then do reach out to us anytime! We can assist you with getting back control over your code base by writing clean codes. With our expert Java tutors who hold years of experience in writing clean codes, we can make sure that every line of code written by us will be readable and maintainable by any developer coming in future as well.

How To Refactor (Clean) Your Code?

The first step in writing clean code is refactoring it, i.e., improving it by changing code in such a way that we don’t change what it does. At Programming Assignment Help, we provide online python homework help so you can take your coding skills to How to Write Clean Codes! If you have been stuck with a problem, get our experts’ help by providing us details about your task and an approximate time frame for completion. Once we review your request, we will let you know how much time and money it will cost for us to complete your Python homework or project – no upfront payment is required! So why wait? Enrol with us today and our expert tutors will provide quality programming assignment help for students across all subjects!

Python Homework Help: Get Expert Assistance with Your Assignments

PYTHON HOMEWORK HELP: GET EXPERT ASSISTANCE WITH YOUR ASSIGNMENTS

Getting the Best Out of a Programming Assignment

While creating a program from scratch is an invaluable learning experience, it’s important to get expert programming homework help. If you feel uncertain about solving a particular assignment, our experienced Python programmers can work together with you to complete your program in time for submission. To learn more about Python homework help and start solving your programming assignments today, contact us online.

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We are a group of expert programmers who can solve Python programming homework assignments. To learn more about us, visit our website at [link]. Our team is always ready to help you solve your Python programming homework. What We Do: helps students like you solve their programming assignments in Python. Whether it’s school-related or work-related, we can provide quality assistance in formulating solutions for you.

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